nickel 63 decay equationnickel 63 decay equation

nickel 63 decay equation nickel 63 decay equation

{/eq}, is Copper. And since the atomic Learn the radioactive decay definition. Can someone explain that or link to a video that better explains it? Write a balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of ^{25}_{11}Na. Background. 0000000016 00000 n ^{210}_{84} Po to, The atom undergoes alpha particle emission. 28Mg Beta emission b. The atomic number of nickel-63 is {eq}Z=28 way of thinking about it. xb``c``` D&T,ABy Gv3``rtpAQDT1AvZ Write the complete nuclear equation. So technetium-99m is actually used in several medical imaging Gamma rays are given off, and a gamma ray has no charge and no mass; it's pretty much just energy, Write a balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of lead-214. Plutonium-239 is used to make nuclear weapons. The general equation of a {eq}\beta^- Batteries powered by beta decay came to be known as betavoltaics. Alex Cronstedt discovered this isotope in 1751. Write a nuclear equation for the alpha decay of Po-210. Gamma rays are produced by an acceleration of charged particles. Since we're dealing with zeroes, so these zeroes aren't Direct link to Ephraim Raj's post How do you know charge an, Posted 8 years ago. So here's our electron and an electron ejected from the nucleus Possible sources include beta decay from cobalt-64, and electron capture from copper-64. According to the plot, a nucleus with 28 p+ and 35 n0 is radioactive. For general inquiries, please use our contact form. so we put a one right here. 0000011377 00000 n Write a balanced equation for a. ? Write the nuclear equation for hydrogen-3 decaying by beta emission. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Nickel-63 decays by beta decay. Direct link to Deepankar Chakraborty's post I have a bunch of confusi, Posted 6 years ago. %%EOF The technology for rolling 2-micrometer-thick nickel foil was developed at the Research Institute and Scientific Industrial Association LUCH. This means that the new nuclear battery could be used to power these devices without any significant changes to their design and size. G-M detectors will not detect Ni-63 contamination Precautions Ni-63 contamination cannot be detected with a G-M meter, and special precautions are needed to keep the work environment clean. to eject an alpha particle, so an alpha particle is The equation can be set up as a percent or as a decimal. You can't. A beta particle is an electron. If no, what else is neutron made up of? ejected from this nucleus, so we're losing this alpha particle, and what's left behind Spin 1/2 Parity -1. 0000019574 00000 n But I was told that it doesn't behave like one. The open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current are 1.02 volts and 1.27 microamperes, respectively. Well, once again, the number of nucleons is conserved, so I have The subscript of copper is . $$. - [Voiceover] Let's look at three types of radioactive decay, and we'll start with alpha decay. Direct link to Dhruv Pisharody's post No, a neutron is not made, Posted 8 years ago. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); Ordinary batteries powering clocks, flashlights, toys, and other electrical devices use the energy of so-called redox chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one electrode to another via an electrolyte. 0000071037 00000 n 29 64Cu 30 64Zn + 1 0 . Nickel-63 undergoes decay (t 1/2 = 92. yr) to form copper-63. Direct link to Rhys's post A beta particle can be ei, Posted 6 years ago. While nickel can be naturally found in water and soil, it is often encountered in areas with human pollution. 0000007884 00000 n ^Ni undergoes radioactive decay via negative beta particle (P) emission (Le., 100% of all decays result in an electron being emitted from the nucleus) leading to the creation of a stable copper-63 (^Cu) nucleus. Part B Ac-227 (beta) Express your answer as a nuc. a. Tl-207 (beta). It's still technetium; it's Balanced nuclear reaction equation for the beta minus decay of iodine-131 is .. What is nuclear reaction?. Since it also has a large bandgap, it can operate in a wide range of temperatures, making it the ideal material for nuclear batteries powering spacecraft. 6 0 obj<> endobj (d) Alpha decay of 212 83 B i . The paper was published in the journal Diamond and Related Materials. Decay mode beta emission to stable 63Cu Physical half-life about 96 years Major emission beta minus, 67 keV max, 17 keV avg, 1/dis Range in air about 5 1/2 cm . How long will it take for 1.150 mol of copper-63 to form from 1.250 mol of nickel-63? Uranium is naturally radioactive: Its nucleus is unstable, so the element is in a constant state of decay, seeking a more stable arrangement. This effect is known as self-absorption. 0000003735 00000 n It's given off energy in the form of gamma rays in this example here. 0000007089 00000 n So thorium-234 is our other product. a. 1 0 obj in the previous video. National Institutes of Health. <> 0000030940 00000 n 0000001219 00000 n Inhalation ALI: 800 Ci equals 5 rem TEDE (Whole Body) Doses: Skin Dose: Point Source: Disk Source: Reported for 1 Ci over 10 cm2 of skin 0 mrad/hr (gamma dose) 0 mrad/hr (beta dose) 0 mrad/hr (beta dose) <>>> Write the nuclear reaction equation for the alpha decay of ^214Po. Beta particleselectrons and positronsemitted by a radioactive source ionize atoms of a semiconductor, creating uncompensated charge carriers. 0000001513 00000 n %PDF-1.5 Complete the nuclear equation for the following: a) tritium, 3H undergoes β decay. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The NUBASE2020 evaluation of nuclear properties", "Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "New nuclides included for the first time in the 2017 evaluation", "Twice-magic metal makes its debut | Science News | Find Articles", "Atom Smashers Shed Light on Supernovae, Big Bang", "Atomic weights of the elements. 0000030917 00000 n :]-MQLO5V&i)Ux{e&Q4!QS^B" M5}/%N|&UBdZ]zG#p i]c8=0A)~UQ>u {/eq} is the parent nucleus. . so we put a zero here. So a neutron turning into a proton. Nickel-63 is generally the In 2016, Russian researchers from MISIS had already presented a prototype betavoltaic battery based on nickel-63. Currently available prototypes of nuclear batteries are poorly optimized, since they have excessive volume. )8]w &mx8t MN dMju8C`[GH7USo">0BN}qH84}i ^% Di)}K`6j=,Wekjjy0g6w(_vc A~kg'0@?9:CL*NiQ*+st Part B) Bi^{214}. 134 0 obj <> endobj ejected from the nucleus. 0000011884 00000 n Write the nuclear equation for phosphorus-32 decaying by beta emission. b. Mn-49 (positron emission). 0000001603 00000 n The daughter nucleus has two fewer protons and two fewer neutrons than the parent. Reason? 1. It is proposed to be used for miniature betavoltaic generators for pacemakers. in our nuclear equation. 0000025977 00000 n and we gained a proton. It is both naturally occurring and produced by fission. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the alpha decay of polonium-215. Work on such generators was earlier reported by physicists from the University of Bristol. charge is also conserved. While in the body, nickel presents a health hazard from the beta particles and gamma radiation; the main health concern is associated with the increased likelihood of inducing cancer. In small quantities, it is eliminated through urine or the intestinal tract; in larger doses, however, it is toxic and may cause serious health conditions: Contact dermatitis. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the alpha decay of titanium-45. Radiation Safety Data - 63Ni Electron Capture Detectors Nickel-63 has a low energy beta spectrum and reasonably long half-life, making it . A wipe survey using liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method for detecting Ni-63. (c) Formation of iridium-186 through electron capture. Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. 0000022443 00000 n MathJax reference. [11] 78Ni, along with N = 50 isotones 79Cu and 80Zn, are thought to constitute a waiting point in the r-process, where further neutron capture is delayed by the shell gap and a buildup of isotopes around A = 80 results.[12]. 0000006082 00000 n Nickel powder and Raney Nickel are FLAMMABLE SOLIDS. Give the full nuclear equation and state the resulting isotope. startxref Nickel-58 is the most abundant isotope of nickel, making up 68.077% of the natural abundance. Write the balanced nuclear equation for the alpha decay of rhenium-162. B) 210_83 Bi Express your answer as a nuclear equati. With 28 protons and 50 neutrons, nickel-78 is doubly magic, resulting in much greater nuclear binding energy and stability despite having a lopsided neutron-proton ratio. Following the separation of the defective layer by etching, the semi-finished converter was fitted with ohmic and Schottky contacts. Cobalt-60 decays to Nickel-60 plus an electron and an electron antineutrino. Direct link to Ryley's post So he talks about the thr, Posted 8 years ago. In 1913, Henry Moseley invented the first power generator based on radioactive decay. ", More information: 100 years Nickel-63 has a half-life of 100 years and Lal estimates that useful power could be generated for at least half this time. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, collect data for ads personalisation and provide content from third parties. Firstly, enriching nickel-63 in the radiation source would proportionally increase battery power. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. Nickel-63 has a half-life of 100 years, so the battery packs about 3,300 milliwatt-hours of power per 1 gram10 times more than electrochemical cells. and diagnostic procedures, because we have ways of Consequently, beta particles are emitted with a continuous energy spectrum ranging from 0 to 67 keV. 0000002839 00000 n . Each converter was merely tens of micrometers thick, like a plastic bag in a supermarket. 0000004857 00000 n PubChem . Posted 8 years ago. 1. But if the nucleus could decay by converting a neutron into a proton (i.e.,going one down and one to the right) , this 30n0 30p+ would place the daughter on the band of stability. A ZX N ZAXN + 1 + 2 + ( decay) Z A X N Z A X N + 1 + 2 + ( decay) where the asterisk indicates the nucleus is in an excited state. The substrate then underwent high-temperature annealing to induce graphitization of the buried defective layer and recover the top diamond layer. Nickel-63 emits beta particles with a maximum range of 5 cm in the air. Ni-63 Radionuclide Fact Sheet - Stanford Environmental Health & Safety. # Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN). A typical nickel atom has 28 electrons (negative charges) surrounding a nucleus of 28 protons (positively charged nucleons) and 30 neutrons (neutral nucleons). Write the nuclear equation for the beta decay of Tl-207. Express your answer as a nuclear equation. This is our beta particle. Probably, but also probably not for very long, since any free electrons in the area will be attracted to it's positive charge. The prototype battery achieved an output power of about 1 microwatt, while the power density per cubic centimeter was 10 microwatts, which is enough for a modern artificial pacemaker. Write a nuclear equation for the positron emission decay of O-15. 0000049581 00000 n ko'XiWy}#8{fZQr@=!Q`B}5n?xXLe?[0i..2NBoTk3Wn>d{M*.1Eq. Th-234 (beta) 4. ^{238}_{90} U to, The atom undergoes alpha particle emission. This of course represents the electron, so this is the electron that's ^{239}_{92} U to, The atom undergoes alpha particle emission. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the following: The nuclide thorium-234 undergoes beta decay to form protactinium-234. In alpha decay, an alpha particle is ejected from an unstable nucleus, so here's our unstable JnG 7GrIIT bS0ixEK?~#F@+y EB2uY;EI!+@q`{!IM ViR$!`{?4874@Le/jFw Nickel-59 decays with a half-life of 75,000 years by electron capture and nickel-63 decays with a half-life of 96 years by emitting a beta particle. What is optimism in the face of uncertainty? Learn how to use a half-life graph to write the equation for an atom's half-life and vice-versa. Write a nuclear equation for the beta decay of each nuclide. 0000007148 00000 n Write a balanced nuclear equation for alpha emission by ^242_94 Pu. A total of 200 converters were grown on 20 substrates. All converters were connected in parallel in a stack as shown in figure 1. In the recent years, our institute has been rather successful in the synthesis of high-quality doped diamonds, particularly those with n-type conductivity. O-15 (positron e. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the nuclide iodine-131 undergoing beta emission. On the left, I know I have 92 protons, so 92 positive charges on the left. From this, scientist have created a model that up to now has always shown to be correct. A beta particle can be either an electron OR a positron. alpha particle in our nuclear equation, since an alpha particle has the same composition Electrochemical etching was used to remove the damaged layer. Possible sources include electron capture from copper-58 and EC + p from zinc-59. It can be referred from a periodic table that the element with atomic number, {eq}Z+1=29 Nickel means false Copper from the German word, Kupfernickel. It is also used in Electron capture detector in gas chromatography for the detection mainly of halogens. So 234 minus 91 gives us 143 neutrons. # Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS). Very fine Nickel powder and dust, and Raney Nickel, react with AIR and can spontaneously ignite or produce flammable and explosive Hydrogen gas. The atom undergoes beta particle emission. Nickel-61 is the only stable isotope of nickel with a nuclear spin (I = 3/2), which makes it useful for studies by EPR spectroscopy.[9]. 1. Nickel contact can cause a variety of side effects on human health, such as allergy, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, lung fibrosis, lung and nasal cancer. Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. The regular use of wipe testing, using a liquid scintillation counter, is the only way to insure that your work space does not contain low-level removable contamination. 0000011622 00000 n In radioactive decay, emission is common and is . Question: Write equations for the following nuclear reactions a) The . Some of these batteries, called accumulators, are rechargeable, but even they need to be replaced for charging. 0000000956 00000 n Og. (b) Formation of 48 22 T i through positron emission. Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. These particles have a half-life of 100.1 years. Or any other element for that matter? what else is produced here? Nickel - 63 RADIONUCLIDE DATA SHEET Nickel - 63 Min. Alpha, beta, and gamma decay are all ways that an unstable atom can decay into a more stable form. So we need 90 positive charges. Well, that'd be 234 minus 91. Nuclides with atomic number of 28 but with different mass numbers. You could think about the H|Tn0+E>h\rUn -C[!Vp&A?R-?JRp53;gwy2xhog m`a. Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from: Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. Ac-227 (beta) 3. We saw the helium nucleus And a neutron is a nucleon, A surge protector is a device that protects sensitive electronic equipment like computers from sudden changes in the electric current flowing into them. startxref 0000049604 00000 n 0000005442 00000 n %PDF-1.4 % Direct link to Samayita S.'s post How do we know which elem, Posted 4 years ago. View the full answer. The battery was sealed with epoxy. Nickel is a naturally-occurring metallic element with a silvery-white, shiny appearance. not part of this video, so we'll just ignore it for now. All rights reserved. A boron-doped diamond film 15 micrometers thick was grown on top of this layer using chemical vapor deposition. If we are looking at a proton decaying into a neutron, emitting a positron, the equation would be. If the two battery terminals are then connected by a conductor, electrons start flowing to remove the potential difference, generating an electric current. Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet, Nickel-63 UNII-C4L55RH4J6 C4L55RH4J6 13981-37-8 Nickel, isotope of mass 63 More. Could someone help me. have zero charge on the left, plus one on the right, we Following nuclea . where Y is the nuclide that has two fewer protons than X, such as Th having two fewer than U. Discover radioactive decay and the half-life equation. Question: 1. This metal makes its way to the human body through respiratory tract, digestive system and skin. 100.1 y. Half-life. Scintillation counters can use different materials specialized for specific types of radiation as well. y^2#>9x~d}a Superscript question mark subscript 28 upper N i right arrow superscript 63 subscript question mark upper C u plus superscript 0 subscript 1 e. The superscript of nickel is . is this thorium nucleus. In this decay, one of the neutrons gets converted into a proton by emitting an electron (beta particle) and an anti-neutrino. a. Po-210 (alpha) b. Ac-227 (beta) c. Tl-207 (beta) d. O-15 (positron emission) e. Pd-103 (electron capture). The identity of the other product, just look it up here at our table, find atomic number of 90, and you'll see that's thorium here. Express your answer as a nuclear equation. So these would represent all the subatomic particles for nickel 63 isotope. Nickel resists corrosion and is used to plate other metals to protect them. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the formation of Np-232 by alpha-decay. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the following: a) the nuclide strontium-90 undergoes beta emission. Write the nuclear equation for uranium-235 decaying by alpha emission. Isotopes of Nickel (click to see decay chain): 48 Ni 49 Ni 50 Ni 51 Ni 52 Ni 53 Ni 54 Ni 55 Ni 56 Ni 57 Ni 58 Ni 59 Ni 60 Ni 61 Ni 62 Ni 63 Ni 64 Ni 65 Ni 66 Ni 67 Ni 68 Ni 69 Ni 70 Ni 71 Ni 72 Ni 73 Ni 74 Ni 75 Ni 76 Ni 77 Ni 78 Ni. This page was last edited on 28 April 2023, at 08:07. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. Part A) Pb^{214}. measuring the gamma radiation, and so this is very useful in medicine. What else do we make? The efficiency of RTGs is only several percent and depends on temperature. Check that the numbers on the top and bottom add up so mass and charge are conserved. I need 92 positive charges on the right. I recall learning about an N/Z ratio (using the belt of stability), but I'm really confused about it. Expert Answer. 59Ni has found many applications in isotope geology. Write the balanced nuclear equations for the beta, alpha, and gamma decay of radium-226. need negative one right here. What does nickel decay into? Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. Write a nuclear equation for the electron capture decay of Pd-103. beta mimus emission Ni-63 decays by beta mimus emission to the Cu-63 fundamental level. We could put a beta here, nucleons on the right. However, the idle voltage of the device was way too hightens of kilovoltsand the current was too low for practical applications. 0000007546 00000 n 0000011138 00000 n Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. Usually, in terms of high energy decay, this is due to a rearrangement of nucleons in a nucleus into a lower energy state (this is what is referred to as gamma decay), nuclear fission, or various other means. Secondly, developing a diamond p-i-n structure with a controlled doping profile would boost. Princeton, NJ 08540[emailprotected]609-258-5294, 2023 The Trustees of Princeton University, Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment, Laboratory Access and Training Recommendations, Laboratory Equipment and Engineering Controls, SHIELD - Safety, Health, Inspection and Equipment Logistics Database, Administration of Biological and Chemical Hazards to Animals, Medical Clearance and Safety Training For Animal Researchers, Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules, Shipping and Receiving Biological Material, X-Ray Machines & Other Radiation-Producing Equipment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Construction, Staff Achievements and Departmental Honors, Authorization to Use Radioactive Materials. 2 0 obj So for representing an So a neutron has turned into a proton, and we're also getting a beta particle ejected from the nucleus. This will allow us to make the transition from Schottky barriers to p-i-n structures and thus achieve three times greater battery power. 609-258-6271; Colt Greer Write the balanced nuclear equation for the decay of Ag-112. b) 242Pu undergoes α-particle emission. little bit more detail. Can any one help?? Construct a balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of thallium-209. Let's start with technetium-99m, and the m right here 29 64Cu 28 64N i + 1 0. Nickel-63 has two main uses: Detection of explosives traces, and in certain kinds of electronic devices, such as gas discharge tubes used as surge protectors. We already have two positive charges from our alpha particle, and so we need 90 more. a. Po-210(alpha) b. Ac-227(beta) c. Th-234(beta) d. Mn-49(positron emission) e. Pd-103 (electron capture), The atom undergoes beta particle emission. Inhalation of nickel is the greatest risk of developing health problems, as it becomes highly carcinogenic. Firstly, enriching nickel-63 in the radiation source would proportionally increase battery power. Direct link to JumanaFa's post How can we predict what t, Posted 3 years ago. Associate Director and it's an electron, so a negative one charge, is called a beta particle. 0000007237 00000 n Please select the most appropriate category to facilitate processing of your request. If you look at the periodic table, and you find the atomic number of 91, you'll see that this is protactinium. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no 0000007523 00000 n 8 0 obj<>stream Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. As a percent, the equation would be: (x) + (100-x) = 100, where the 100 designates the total percent in nature. neutron turning into a proton, and this is an oversimplified Nickel has 28 protons in the nucleus, so Ni-63 has 35 neutrons. Write an equation for the following reaction. Since there are two protons, the charge of an alpha 0000020089 00000 n Write the nuclear equation for the positron emission of Mn-49. 1. This particular radioisotope is historically important for several reasons. You would nee. hb```@2Ab, X@ *0V09nrI3bqR>/y]VqKr>L^hyGS.n*i`2PhSq1hPhHhSAewxn@FAomXzW [koo-7w2rbw&_ dTjY>%l3=R:d^]~W In the presence of a static field of a p-n structure, the charges flow in one direction, resulting in an electric current. Write the complete nuclear equation. Write the equation for this reaction. It is involved in the radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons. Write the balanced nuclear equation for the formation of Am through beta- decay. Lung cancer. The decay constant, , which is the same as a rate constant discussed in the kinetics chapter. Ac-227 (beta) 3. Write the complete nuclear equation. It is, however, mainly used in making alloys such as stainless steel. write our proton here. {eq}\rm \bar{\nu_e} Write nuclear equations for the formation of each of the following nuclides by Beta emission A) 3_2H Express your answer as a nuclear equation. [10] As a consequence of its magic neutron number, nickel-78 is believed to have an important involvement in supernova nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron. 63Ni decay), an antineutrino particle is simultaneously emitted and carries off the energy difference between 67 keV and that of the released beta particle. 262 Alexander Street So I go ahead and draw <]/Prev 925107>> Nickel is also an micronutritient essential for proper functioning of the human body, as it increases hormonal activity and is involved in lipid metabolism. Th-234 (beta) Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. Fermion, 28p 35n. How do we know which elements will undergo which kind of decay without actually observing them? Chemical batteries, also known as galvanic cells, are characterized by a high power densitythat is, the ratio between the power of the generated current and the volume of the battery. 0000004811 00000 n Nuclear reaction is a reaction which changes the identity of an atomic nuclei, when high energetic particles is bombarded on that.. Electrons resulting from the beta decay of radium caused a potential difference between the silver film and the central electrode. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Express your answer as a nuclear equation. Radioactive isotopes used in nuclear batteries have half-lives ranging from tens to hundreds of years, so their power output remains nearly constant for a very long time. The higher the power density of the device, the more applications it will have. (4 pts) 3. What kind of decay does nickel-63 undergo? {/eq} is the beta negative particle (electron). Write a nuclear equation for the indicated decay of each of the following nuclides. ejected from the nucleus of a thorium-234, so we're It decays into copper 63. Radiation Monitoring Requirements: Radiation monitoring badges are not required for Ni-63 users, since the monitoring badges will not detect Ni-63. The half life of Nickel 63 is 100 years. But inside the nucleus, the nucleons are bound to one another by the strong nuclear force, so you also get quantized energy levels for that smaller system. 0000003074 00000 n This document is subject to copyright. stands for metastable, which means a nucleus Positron emission, beta plus decay, or + decay is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (e). Fortunately, chemical reactions are just one of the possible sources of electric power. Th-234 (beta) 4. b) The radioactive decay of polonium-207 by alpha emission c) The fission reaction of uranium-235 with neutrons to produce xenon-142, rubidium-95 and positron emission. What is it used for? 0000019391 00000 n However, there are plans to launch nickel-63 production on an industrial scale by mid-2020s. Program Manager for Radiation Safety Trying to figure out the other product from our nuclear equation, I know nucleons are conserved, so if I have 238 nucleons on the left, I need 238 nucleons on the right. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the following: a. bismuth-211 undergoes beta decay: b. chromium-50 undergoes positron emission: c. {eq}\rm _Z^AX Write the balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of calcium-47. Ingestion ALI: 9000 Ci equals 5 rem TEDE (Whole Body) Min. How can we predict what type of radiation might happen to a certain isotope?

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